Eid al-Fitr

Eid al-Fitr, also known as the "Festival of Breaking the Fast," is a significant religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide. It marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting.

During Eid al-Fitr, Muslims gather for special prayers, give thanks to Allah, and engage in acts of charity. It is a time of joy and celebration, with families and friends coming together to share meals and exchange gifts.

Muslims also dress in their finest clothes and visit mosques to offer prayers. Traditional greetings such as "Eid Mubarak" are exchanged, which means "Blessed Eid" in Arabic.

The date of Eid al-Fitr varies each year, as it is determined by the sighting of the new moon. It is typically celebrated for three days, although the exact duration can vary depending on regional customs and religious observances.

Eid al-Fitr is an important time for Muslims to express gratitude, strengthen community bonds, and reflect on the spiritual growth achieved during Ramadan.

Determining the date of Eid al-Fitr relies on the sighting of the new moon, which is vital in the Islamic calendar as it follows the lunar cycle. When the crescent moon is observed, it signifies the start of a new month, including the month of Shawwal when Eid al-Fitr takes place.

The process of determining the new moon sighting can vary across countries and regions. Typically, individuals or committees are assigned to observe the sky after sunset on the 29th day of Ramadan. If the crescent moon is sighted, it indicates the end of Ramadan, and Eid al-Fitr is celebrated the following day. However, if the moon is not sighted, Ramadan continues for an additional day, and Eid al-Fitr is observed on the day after the 30th day of Ramadan.

Several factors can influence the sighting of the new moon, such as weather conditions, geographical location, and astronomical calculations. Different countries may have their own criteria for confirming the sighting, leading to variations in the dates of Eid al-Fitr celebrations.

It is important to emphasize that the precise date of Eid al-Fitr can only be confirmed based on the actual sighting of the new moon in each specific region. Therefore, it is advisable to consult local Islamic authorities or reliable sources for the official announcement of the Eid al-Fitr date in a particular area. 


Eid al-Fitr, also called the "Holiday of Breaking the Fast," is a significant Islamic holiday celebrated worldwide. It signifies the end of the month-long fasting period of Ramadan and is considered one of the official holidays in Islam people, alongside Eid al-Adha. The specific date of Eid al-Fitr varies in the Gregorian calendar as it depends on the sighting of the new moon by local religious authorities, which determines the beginning of the Islamic month of Shawwal.

Eid al-Fitr is known by different names in different languages and countries, and it is sometimes referred to as the "Lesser Eid" or simply Eid. On this day, Muslims gather to perform a special prayer known as salat, comprising two units or rakats. The prayer is typically conducted in a large hall or an open field and is performed collectively. During the prayer, Muslims raise their hands to their ears while reciting the phrase "Allāhu ʾAkbar" (God is the greatest), a practice known as Takbir. The number of Takbirs may vary depending on the specific school of thought within Sunni and Shia Islam.

Following the prayer, Muslims celebrate Eid al-Fitr in diverse ways. Food, known as "Eid cuisine," holds a central place in the festivities and has earned the holiday the nickname "Sweet Eid" or "Sugar Feast." Families and friends come together to enjoy special meals, exchange greetings, and give gifts.

The observance of Eid al-Fitr and its associated customs, such as the special prayer and the joyous gatherings, can differ based on local traditions and religious interpretations.

Different countries determine the sighting of the new moon for Eid al-Fitr through various methods. Here are some common practices:

Moon Sighting Committees: Many countries have Moon Sighting Committees or religious authorities responsible for determining the start of the Islamic lunar month. These committees rely on eyewitness testimonies of the sighting of the new moon. They may use telescopes or binoculars to aid in the observation.

Local Moon Sighting: In some countries, individuals or local communities rely on their own moon sighting to determine the start of Eid al-Fitr. This can involve looking for the new moon with the naked eye or using binoculars or telescopes.

Astronomical Calculations: Some countries use astronomical calculations to predict the visibility of the new moon. These calculations take into account the position of the moon and the sun, as well as other factors such as atmospheric conditions. However, it's important to note that astronomical calculations may not always align with actual sightings.

Regional or International Coordination: In certain regions or among Muslim organizations, there may be efforts to coordinate the moon sighting across multiple countries. This can help ensure consistency in determining the start of Eid al-Fitr.

It's important to remember that the sighting of the new moon can vary depending on geographical location, weather conditions, and cultural traditions. Therefore, different countries may have slightly different practices for determining the sighting of the new moon for Eid al-Fitr.

Local residents use telescopes to observe the position of the moon to mark the end of Ramadan in Idlib, Syria


The practices of Ramadan have been influenced by advancements in science, particularly in the field of astronomy. 

Scientists have recognized that various atmospheric factors, such as air turbulence, humidity, dust, and pollution, can affect the visibility of the moon. Initially, geometric approaches were used, with the Babylonians suggesting that the crescent would be visible if the angle between the moon and the sun exceeded 12 degrees. Later, astronomers incorporated physics into their understanding, considering the contrast between the brightness of the moon and the background sky as a factor in visibility.

During this time, the concept of the Lunar Date Line was introduced by Malaysian astronomer Mohammad Ilyas. This concept suggests that while one part of the world may observe the crescent and begin a new month, another part may not, resulting in a one-day delay. Despite advancements in calculations and theories, accurately predicting lunar visibility remains challenging, making it difficult to forecast whether the moon will be visible from a specific location.

In Islamic tradition, timekeeping is considered a collective activity, and individuals are encouraged to go out and sight the moon in their own locality. However, many Muslims rely on Saudi Arabia's moon sighting committee of the Supreme Court to officially announce the start date of Ramadan.